In mathematics, **nothing **is the empty set having no elements; its size or cardinality (count of elements in a set) is zero. A set with an element e is denoted {e} while an empty set is {}.

In cosmology, *nothing* is an empty dimension and the complete absence of matter, photons and zero-point energy (ZPE) fields at all levels of reality. Comparatively, a vacuum would have the absence of matter and photons but include ZPE fields, and this allows absolute zero where entropy has vanished, and objects like black bodies, which absorb all radiation falling on them at all wavelengths of the electromagnetic spectrum. In the context of ZPE, zero is something as opposed to nothing.

Universes in a multiverse may appear from and disappear into **nothing**. A black hole can regress into an empty singularity which implies a zero Schwarzschild radius.

In the outerverse there is no concept of nothing as all of existence is boundless and eternal, whereas a single particle in non-reality would be unknowable and therefore nothing in reality. The Dark is composed of particles, and since the outerverse is eternal it negates the possibility of it ever being in a state of nothingness.

Outside the cosmos lies an eternal void which is the realm of nothingness.

The abstract layer of nothing is **oblivion**.

Compare:

### A discussion by user:My02cent:[]

#### Part 1: The Intrinsic nature of Nothing[]

Within a location of space, nothingness is the absence of all physical influences, forces, laws and constants, meaning an absence of space and time itself. Within our universe it is a physical impossibility for there to exist a region where space and time can not and does not exist. In this way the universe is comprised of three attributes: Space ,Time and Matter - all of which give rise to Energy.

We can combine Locality with Temporality to define the abstract concept associated with spacetime. Spacetime is an objectively true property of our ontological universe. We abstract Locality with Temporality so as to build a construct from which we can hypothesize beyond the limiting constraints of true ontology.

Given some locality whose value is not equal to 0 we can define as *somewhere*. Given some Temporality whose values is not equal to 0 we can define as *somewhen*. A physical property of our known universe can not undergo a transformation in state making its nature as a phenomenon equal to 0. The quality of nothing is not knowable nor can it be experienced or measured objectively. Nothing is the quality of state of being where all quantitative empirical values equal 0.

Given some Locality and or Temporality whose value is not equal to 0 but is positive or negative, we define *something* and *sometime*. Even if these values are abstracted as being negative, a negative space has an inverse behavior. A positive volume can be said to inflate and expand. A negative space experiencing inflation would have an observable inverse behavior and would be said to contract as a by-product of expansion. If a positive inflation and a negative inflation were to interact, you would get a static movement. But the empirical ground state would measure +/- 1, not zero. This is something. By its nature it is impossible to measure 0 locality and 0 temporality, thus making nothingness as an empirical knowable ontological state intrinsically unknowable, beyond reasoning and comprehension.

Furthermore if we have some encompassing volume of Locality and Temporality, within we can describe influences, forces, laws and constants which give rise to corporal and incorporeal entities. These entities may have nature which transcend the existence of the encompassing volume within which they are present. Given some “influences, forces, laws and constants” whose empirical values are +/- while never being equal to 0, we can say that there is something which exists inside the encompassing locality and temporality. Given the same “influences, forces, laws and constants” whose empirical values are equal to 0 we can say that they are nothing. As that which is encompassed by locality and temporality are an aspect of them but their existence is not dependent upon its contents. We can empty all “influences, forces, laws and constants” from the locality and temporality and it will have nothing within its encompassing threshold while itself still having a presence not equal to 0.

Until now we have been abstracting that existence is inside of non-existence. While contradictory this claim is logically sound. A circle is a line drawn parallel to a point. A sphere is a plane drawn parallel to a point. A glome is a cube drawn parallel to a point. A hyper sphere is a tesseract draw parallel to a point.

For the last few years this assertion has been strong and without contradiction. Until we discovered the theory that postulates that our universe come from nothing (Lawrence Krauss). First virtual particles are allowed to violate the known laws of physics, we reason that the vacuum state gives rise to the aggregate of what we define as elementary particles. When the perfect vacuum state of the universe can be perceived as boiling like a pot of water, we realize that particles are the high energy bubbles within the low energy vacuum as a by-product of thermodynamic forces trying to equalize. The instability of our universe’s ground vacuum state is what gives rise to this observation. With this understanding we realize that it’s the subjective bias premise that is in error. “A universe from nothing” is a falsehood. At best virtual particles conserve the vacuum energy state. Where they exist is a higher energy state encompassed by a lower energy state.

#### Part 2: Locality[]

If we state that a virtual particle is a higher energy state contrasting against a lower encompassing energy state, what we find is that we can define locality as an encompassing zero dimensional state. If defined as a number line, locality would be located at zero. Now originally this point would be the outer extremity opposite to the center of a circle. Everything within the circle would be defined as existence. And everything outside this circle would be defined as non-existence. But again the visualization of a universe from nothing provided more contradictory evidence, this time in the form of negative energy. Negative energy is stated as being equal and opposite positive energy. Virtual particles are said to come into existence as positive and negative energy fluctuations. Our universe is said to have infinite positive energy and infinite negative energy. Together the total energy state of the universe equals zero. But as the universe is described as being uneven, this lack of uniformity is what gives rise to the physical composition and distribution of the cosmos.

If we go back to our model of the locality we have defined a circumference of a circle parallel to a point at its center. This point is infinity and allegoric to everything that exists. The circumference is defined as zero and represents no dimensions, and everything outside the circle is also zero relative to the circle. Where then do negative numbers exist? The center value of the circle has been defined using a single all-inclusive infinite set. It is contradictory to simply state that the infinite negative set exists as equal to the positive set. If both sets are present within the same infinite volume then the entire system collapse into a zero ground state.

This is where the manifold comes in. A manifold is a topological space that can be defined as having no boundaries. Its interior and exterior are one and the same. This is its simplified allegoric nature. Manifolds are objectively true and they can be illustrated and fabricated within our objective reality. Their nature can be objectively abstracted and thus known. A manifold drawn parallel to a point perfectly analogizes infinite indefinity and the lowest ground state of the locality. If we open up a manifold we get a number line. To one side of the number line we describe the positive set - this is the *ascendant*. At the opposite side of the number line we describe the negative set - this is the *descendent*. We mark each set of numbers 0 to 9. For the ascendant we mark 0 to +9 and for the descendent set we mark 0 to -9. To conserve the cardinality of the locality we then label each set so that the positive and negative numbers are inverse from each other. (+1| -9) (+2| -8) (+3| -7) (+4| -6) (+5| -5) etc. Now we twist one side of the number line spinning it along its length 180 degrees. This converts the number line into a manifold. We then draw the manifold parallel to a point giving rise to a mathematical model of a true universe from nothing, where non-existence is encompassed by existence.

This is the foundation of the locality. Every point is a ground state locality. Like virtual particles these points can manifest into being. Their energy state moves them away from the manifold if they are ascendant. They will move into a positive direction and if they are descendent they will move into the negative direction. Once they reach the highest point of their energy state they come into being. As they lose energy they descend back toward the manifold ground state returning to a locality of zero in the process.

#### Part 3: The absolute lowest ground state is momentum.[]

*Nothing* is the unknowable aggregate which gives rise to the intrinsic property of the ontological locality. In this context Nothing or Nothingness is ontologically unintelligible, incomprehensible, indiscernible, meaningless, unfathomable, obscure, cryptic, inscrutable, enigmatic, mumbled, indistinct, inarticulate, incoherent, illegible, indecipherable, unimaginable and irreconcilable. If we close our eyes for a thought experiment and try to imagine something which is beyond our comprehension, the act itself is irreconcilable. At best we can come to a sapient approximation. When we attempt to perceive something which is beyond my own comprehension, our mind creates the presence of some complex form, but it is beyond our senses of perception. It knowable but not observable. Our mind generates the darkest darkness where within the knowable unobservable form resides. Because of this we are of the mind that Darkness is the omnipresent natural state of the unknown and undefined. When we look up into the night sky there is a lot of information in the form of electromagnetic radiation that we should be able to see, but our minds only detect and decode the visible light spectrum. The rest of the electromagnetic spectrum that includes the gravitational spectrum is beyond our limited perspective. Due to this the universe is dominated by the ubiquity of darkness. Darkness is the closest natural state of nothingness that can be objectively observed and directly experienced by human. Darkness is the result of there being no visible light present.

Entropy is the loss of order and a return to chaos and uncertainty. With regards to the locality we can state plainly that zero dimension is the same as a state of having a dimension which can not be understood. The closer any given state of the locality gets to zero the more disordered and uncertain its causality becomes. This is entropy where the ground state of locality is defined as 1. At a ground state of 0.99 and below we describe the threshold of zero dimensions. At a state of 0.0 we have reached absolute nothingness. If the forces of entropy are sufficient high, the ground state might cross the ascendant threshold and begin its descent toward a negative ground state. At and above -1.0 we have reached the ceiling of the descent state. Like with the ascendant state a ground state of -0.99 and above we describe the threshold of zero dimensions.

If we describe a point within the locality with a ground state of 1 we define something which has 1 dimension. If we imagine a point within the locality with a ground state of 0.99 we define nothingness which has 0 dimensions.

Order is the loss of disorder and a return to orderliness and certainty. It is hard to define its locality. In essence it is the state or fact of existing, occurring, or being present within a place or thing. As mentioned before nothingness is the state of indefinity contrasting against the locality which is the foundation where within things occupy or are comprised. The locality is the relativistic medium where within matter and energy exist and interact.

The present state of the observable universe implies as a constant a universal expansion where all points within the locality are moving away from other points within the locality. While this observation is based on spatial locality its duration is also an aspect of the temporal as well. By reversing the location of all points in present space backwards through time we arrive at a singular moment in the past where all points within the locality have an origin which is best described as having infinite density.

This earliest point in our universe's abstracted history causes a breakdown of our understanding of the fundamental forces which drive our knowable observable universe. It is theorized that the fundamental forces which governed the singularity of our early universe changed resulting in the Big Bang giving rise to our knowable universe.

As stated 0.0 implies nothing. But less then 1 is quantifiable equal to zero while not being anything. In much the same way that 0.99 is approximately 1.0 without actually being 1.0. Imagine a line AB. At some point on this line AB define a point of 0.0; this point is nothingness. To the left of this point define a point which is -0.99 and to the right of the first point define a second point 0.99. Given line segment AB has ordinality. If any given point of AB were to change their values then all associated cardinality would also change as a result. If the cardinality of .99 change to .98 then all other cardinalities would have to change so that ordinality of line segment AB would remain constant. Because of this 0.0 would change from nothing to something. And its closest infinitesimal neighbor's cardinality would also change from something to nothing. If we treat line segment AB as an isolated system we can state that its cardinality and its ordinality is a thermodynamic system subject to the forces of entropy. As any given cardinality loses energy or gains energy the whole system gains or loses energy as well. Location A of the Segment is equal to -0.99 and location B of the segment is equal to 0.99. From these we can derive a finite number of cardinality where within as a whole we describe a thermodynamic system. If location A and location B lose energy and the system remains conserved forever, cardinality would shift its energy from the center outward to conserve ordinality of line segment AB the values would remain the same but their quantities which separate distances between them would be further apart due to less energy being present in the system. In other words the locality would be less dense.

The expansion of the early universe is abstracted as some internal gravitational force of attraction which is holding everything together. Whereas taken as a cosmic whole the pressure of an unbound region of space of higher vacuum energy could have pushed all the early physical matter and energy of our universe into a single dense point. When the external boundary of our universe underwent a change in its ground state energy, our universe experienced negative existential pressure and thus expanded. The fundamental forces operating on the quantum scale require the tiniest degrees of change to describe macroscopic changes to the natural phenomena of the physical world.

This line of reasoning which is illustrate with a single 1D line can be abstracted into an infinite number of dimensions. We have always reasoned that our 3D directly observable universe is expanding into 4D of locality “space” and 1D of temporality (time). The mechanics of our universe is 4D Space and 1D Time. My assertion is that the locality of our universe is defined with WXYZ cartesian coordinates. Gravity is a dualistic force of attraction and repulsion akin to what we observe in electromagnetism. However gravity operates in the YZ coordinates of our universe. To us the Z coordinate is unobservable and unknowable so we perceive gravity as only a force of mass attraction.

To put it another way a magnet has an attraction and repulsion field which act through 3D WXY but we observe it as a 2D spin state clockwise or counter clockwise. Like gravity in the inverse aspect of universe parallel to us, mass attraction is more dominant with electromagnetism operating as a monopolar force.

#### Part 4: Double Square Law[]

Every system is derived from work. As a mechanic of regress every system requires more work then the previous system until the whole system requires more work than the total system has. This is due to the inverse square law which governs mechanics and dynamics. Any two forces have strength which are equal to the inverse of the distance between them. What this implies is that the force which operates between points in a system is equal to a factor which is relative to the distance between the points. As the distance between points decreases, the factor of the force increases. From this relationship, an external force acting on a system which causes the system to move towards a common center also causes the forces acting between them to increase inversely by their distance. If an internal force was required to push the system back apart it would required more energy to force all points back to their original position than was initially required to put the system into motion to begin with.

The Double Square Law (DSL) states that the allegorical magnitude of the intrinsic force between two points doubles “per 10 units” of the distance between them. If the magnitude is attractive the force between two points charges increase as the distance between them gets smaller. If the magnitude is repulsive the force between two point charges decrease as the distance between them get larger.

As an analogy the DSL is intended to help with the abstraction of how entropy behaves empirically. The use of the description of entropy as “order moving toward disorder” is both inaccurate and misleading. The best example of what is implied by entropy is "why you can’t burn the ashes from coal". You can burn coal and extract heat energy from it but you can’t collect and burn the ash and get the same quality of energy from it that you originally got from the initial burning of coal.

Stellar nucleosynthesis is said to occur with a net gain of energy. As chemical elements are transmitted in the core of stars the process is described as producing more energy than is used in the process of forming heavier and more complex chemical elements until it reaches iron. Like with coal the process of transmutation of iron through stellar nucleosynthesis consumes more energy then the star gets back from the process. In essence, iron and the chemical elements beyond iron on the periodic table of elements are stellar nucleosynthesis ash. They are the remains of a process that is subject to the forces of entropy.

Still this is all allegorical and hasn’t really expressed a clear explanation to the thermodynamic nature of entropy which is very important in redefining the nature of nothingness. To do this we will be using the DSL. However the term square implies a quantity which has been divided into 10 units instead of a number times itself.

Imagine a single intrinsic point charge generating an allegorical force across some distance. From this point define an array of infinite distance and infinite scale. Label the point with a cartesian coordinate as zero. Label the arrow traveling away from the point as infinity. Starting from the point which has been labeled 0 draw a second point label this point 1. Starting from 1 moving away from 0 still on the line, moving a distance equal to the distance from 0 to 1 label a point 2. Continue this process into infinity. This is our frame work.

If at every point the distance is equal, the distance from 0 to 1 is equal to the distance from 1 to 2. Returning back to the intrinsic point charge we must give it some value of 1 as a start.

At location 0 the magnitude of the intrinsic point charge is 1

At location 1 the magnitude of the intrinsic point charge is 2

At location 2 the magnitude of the intrinsic point charge is 4

At location 3 the magnitude of the intrinsic point charge is 8

At location 4 the magnitude of the intrinsic point charge is 16

At location 5 the magnitude of the intrinsic point charge is 32

At location 6 the magnitude of the intrinsic point charge is 64

At location 7 the magnitude of the intrinsic point charge is 128

At location 8 the magnitude of the intrinsic point charge is 256

At location 9 the magnitude of the intrinsic point charge is 512

We have defined the magnitude of the intrinsic charge but we have not given it any kind of orientation. To orientate the intrinsic charge we can use the values of attraction or repulsion. Starting at location 0 we can state that the force of attraction has a magnitude of 512 and the magnitude of its strength will decrease by ½ equal to the square of the distance.

At location 0 the magnitude of the intrinsic point charge is 512

At location 1 the magnitude of the intrinsic point charge is 256

At location 2 the magnitude of the intrinsic point charge is 128

At location 3 the magnitude of the intrinsic point charge is 64

At location 4 the magnitude of the intrinsic point charge is 32

At location 5 the magnitude of the intrinsic point charge is 16

At location 6 the magnitude of the intrinsic point charge is 8

At location 7 the magnitude of the intrinsic point charge is 4

At location 8 the magnitude of the intrinsic point charge is 2

At location 9 the magnitude of the intrinsic point charge is 1

At any location any other intrinsic charge will experience a force equal to the magnitude at that location. At location 5 an intrinsic charge will experience an attractive force equal to 16. This attractive force will cause the intrinsic charge at location 5 to move to location 4. When the intrinsic charge arrives at location 4 it will experience a magnitude force of 32. Between location 5.0 and 4.1 the intrinsic charge experienced a constant magnitudinal force of 16.

Using this analogy we can now understand the nature of entropy. Currently we have an intrinsic charge A at location 0 generating a magnitudinal force of attraction. We have an intrinsic charge B starting at location 5 being influence by charge A at location 0. Charge B is moving with a magnitude of 16 from location 5 toward location 4. Once charge B crosses the threshold of location 4 from 5 it will experience a magnitudinal force of 32 instead of 16.

At location 5 Charge B experiences a force of 16

At location 4 Charge B experiences a force of 32

This is entropy. An object at rest stays at rest. An object in motion stays in motion. An object which has momentum has a vector which gives it direction. As stated before forces of attraction and forces of repulsion have direction associated with their influences. This is important to remember when we state that entropy is the property of nature to become more disordered.

Two forces of attraction move towards each other until they come into contact. Two forces of repulsion move away from each other until they are beyond each other influences. This is the true function of entropy. When two attractive charges reach maximum entropy they are touching or in physical contact with each other.

Go back to the original thought experiment of the charge B at location 4 with a strength of 36 acting upon it. To move this charge back against the attractive force moving it toward Charge A at location 0 would require a force greater then 32 to over come its current attractive force. Yet the initial force required to move charge B at location 4 was only 16. Likewise at location 16 to move the charge to location 3 would require a force greater then 16. Yet if charge B was located at location 3 its magnitudinal force would only be 8. Basically it takes more energy to return a body to its origin then it does to initially set a body into motion (the nature of inertia when a body is at rest). This quality is entropy. It takes less energy to chemically combine oxygen and hydrogen than the electrolysis required to separate water back into hydrogen and oxygen. This is why water is not flammable; it's the product from oxidizing hydrogen and oxygen together.